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differents - کرم ذرت

کرم ذرت

نویسنده :mahdi oladhamzeh
تاریخ:دوشنبه 7 تیر 1395-06:40 ب.ظ

کرم ذرت Sesamia Cretica 

(Lep: Noctuidae)

معرفی آفت

از آفات مهم ذرت می باشد که در مناطق جنوبی و مرکزی کشور انتشار داشته و دارای میزبانهای متعددی می باشد که همواره ذرت خوشه ای، ذرت، نیشکر و سودان گراس را به سایر میزبانها ترجیح می دهد.

نحوة خسارت:

لاروهای سنین اولیه بیشتر از برگهای تازة فوقانی بوته ذرت تغذیه نموده و آنها را سوراخ سوراخ می کند. حملة آفت به مزارع ذرت مصادف با تشکیل گل آذرین نر و قبل از ظهور آن است.

لاروها با سوراخ کردن برگهای در بر گیرنده گل آذرین وارد آن شده و از گلهای نر تغذیه می کنند. هر گاه تغذیه از پایة گل آذین صورت بگیرد. باعث خشک شدن آن می گردد. قطع کردن پایه گل آذین سبب خشک شدن آن شده که از دور نمایان است. گاهی لاروها موفق به خشک کردن گل آذین نشده و با تغذیه از گلهای نر در ساقة آن نفوذ می کنند. اگر تخم ریزی روی غلافهای جانبی بوته انجام گیرد، لاروها از همان محل وارد ساقه می گردند. تعدادی از لاروها وارد خوشة بلال شده و از آن تغذیه می کنند. ورود لارو به خوشه گاهی از قسمت فوقانی صورت می گیرد که در اثر تغذیه از کاکل ذرت باعث قطع آنها می گردد و سرانجام لارو خود را به دانه ها رسانیده و ضمن تغذیه از آنها وارد چوب بلال می شوند. ورود لارو به خوشه همیشه از قسمت فوقانی صورت نگرفته و گاهی با تغذیه و سوراخ کردن برگهای پوشش بلال وارد آن شده و از آن تغذیه می کند. حرکت لاروها در داخل ساقه مسیر مشخصی ندارد. گاهی از بالا به پائین و گاهی از پائین به بالا حرکت می کند ولی کمتر به قسمت طوقه گیاه نزدیک می شود.

زیست شناسی

زمستان را به صورت لارو کامل در جوانه های جانبی بوته درون شاخه ها و داخل ساقه ذرت باقی مانده و در مزارع به سر می برد. در شرایط مساعد و در اواخر بهار لارو تبدیل به شفیره شده و سپس حشرات کامل ظاهر می شوند. حشرات ماده بعد از آمیزش با نر تخمهای خود را به تعداد زیاد تا 400 عدد در دسته های متعدد (8-4) در زیر غلاف برگهای ذرت و یا نیشکر و سایر میزبانها قرار می دهند. دورة جنینی تخم حدود 10-7 روز، سپس لاروهای جوان خارج می گردند. لاروهای جوان فعالیت خود را تقریباً در کنار هم و با تغذیه از برگهای جوان و نزدیک به محل غلاف که در ضمن قسمت ترد و نازک نیز می باشد، شروع می کنند. لاروها تقریباً از سن دوم توانائی نفوذ به داخل ساقه را پیدا می کنند. لاروهای سن آخر (سن پنجم) معمولاً قبل از شفیره شدن مراحل پیش شفیرگی را پشت سر می گذارند و در این مرحله لارو با استفاده از بزاق دهان و فضولات خود پیله مخصوص ایجاد می کند. سپس درون آن به شفیره تبدیل می شود. محل شفیره شدن معمولاً بین علف، برگهای خشک شده و ساقه یا در داخل دالان تغذیه یا زیر پوست بلال و یا درون خوشه و حتی کاکل ذرت و درون گل آذین نر می باشد. بعد از مدت کوتاهی با توجه به حرارت دورة شفیرگی پایان می یابد و حشرات کامل سزامیا در دو جنس نر و ماده ظاهر می شوند. در هر حال نرها زودتر از ماده ها به پرواز در می آیند و در جست و جوی ماده ها شبها فعالیت می کنند. ماده ها بعد از جفت گیری اغلب در ایام شب به تخم ریزی در زیر غلاف برگ می پردازند. در شرایط مساعد فصل زراعی یک دوره نشو و نمای فردی سزامیا از مرحله تخم تا ظهور حشره کامل از 45-40 روز به طول می انجامد. به طور کلی سزامیا آفت چند نسلی (Polyvoltine) است و با توجه به منطقه در سال از 3 تا 5 نسل متوالی در سطح فلات ایران ایجاد می کند. در مزارع ذرت استانهای اصفهان و تهران 3.5-3 نسل، در خوزستان 5-4 نسل دارد.

کنترل:

پارازیتوئید تخم Platytelenomus hylas (Hym.: Scelionidae)

پارازیتوئید لارو Habrobracon hebetor (Hym.: Braconidae)

جمع آوری و آتش زدن بقایای گیاهی در مزرعه در کاهش جمعیت آفت مؤثر است. همچنین می توان علاوه بر گونه های زنبور Trichogramma Spp. را جهت مبارزه با این آفت تکثیر و توزیع نمود..


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